Introduction to Math

Now that you know how to utilize both the graph screen and the home screen, the next step to making wonderful programs is learning how to use the math. That's right: math. Most programs have to use math in order to run. Games that include gravity are an example. The math functions are pretty straightforward; however, their effective use requires some masterful skill. Understanding the math functions will bring you one step closer to becoming a master programmer!

Basic Operators

The simplest operators include +,-, *, /. This tutorial will show how these simple arithmetic operators can be very powerful when applied effectively.

Powers and Exponentials

This group includes all the commands that deal with exponentiation, like ^, 10^(, EE, and e^(. This also includes the inverses such as , ³√(, ×√, and log( and ln(. These commands have a plethora of applications, one of them being the emulation of gravity.


This includes the commands of the random numbers as well as nPr, nCr, and !. These can be used to determine outcomes and allow for computer intelligence.


These are some of the most powerful functions, including sin(, cos(, tan(, and their inverses. If these functions are used in the correct way, then you can create angles and simulate bouncing off of walls, off curved surfaces, and off angled surfaces. These functions can also be used to calculate physics solutions to the transfer of momentum, friction, and rates.

Complex Numbers

This is probably one of the hardest types of math to use. Complex numbers have both a real and an imaginary (i) part, where i=√(-1). Using these is challenging, but also very useful. You can use imaginary operations to find coordinate locations and store other parts of information.

This chapter will discuss the advanced uses of these math functions. You should already know how to use some of the above to perform various calculations, but the content of this chapter will be about how the operations can be used to perform calculations beyond what you can imagine. Another thing to consider is the use of these functions. Programs don't have to be all games, but you can create a various amount math routines.

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